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Field List

Our products and services can enable optimum returns in challenging high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) operations for many of the world's largest international exploration and production (E&P) companies.

# Operator Field Location Date Temperature Description References
57 Conoco Phillips Ekofisk Norway North
Sea
2014-present 136°C
277°F
1.65sg cesium/potassium formate brine used for TP&A operation and two upper completions.  
56 Statoil Gudrun Norway North
Sea
2013-2014 147°C
297°F
1.70sg-2.15sg cesium/potassium formate brine used for two upper completions under HPHT conditions.  
55 Statoil Boje Norway North
Sea
2013   Cesium formate brine used to kill sustained casing pressure, behind production casing, fluid was bullheaded down casing annulus.  
54 Statoil Vigdis Norway North
Sea
2013-2014 108°C
226°F
Cesium/potassium formate brine used as perforation fluid (kill pill) and completion brine for upper completion.  
53 ONGC Yanam
South
India 2013 198°C
388°F
Two wells were completed and injectivity tests conducted using cesium/potassium formate brine.  
52 Shell
Brunei
Bulan
Bulan
Brunei 2014      
51 Lundin Brynhild Norway North
Sea
2013-2014 136°C
302°F
Cesium/potassium formate brine used for intermediate and upper section completions. Also, formed base fluid for perforation kill pill.  
50 ONGC Mumbai
High
India 2012 135°C
275°F
One well was perforated overbalanced in 1.82 g/cm3/15.2 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine. A DST was performed. The upper completion was installed in cesium/potassium formate brine after gravel packing.  
49 Petronas Kanowit Malaysia 2012 130°C
266°F
Two wells were drilled in MPD mode into a fractured carbonate reservoir with sodium/potassium formate drilling fluid. A 1.83 g/cm3/15.3 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate drilling fluid was used as tripping fluid and stand-by kill fluid. Wells were completed openhole using 7" pre-drilled liners in the cesium formate tripping fluid with upper completions installed in cesium formate brine. Case history. IPTC 16697. SPE 165761. SPE 164753.
48 Dong Energy Oselvar Norway North
Sea
2011   Cesium formate brine was used as internal phase in ow-solids oil-based mud (LSOBM).  
47 BP Snadd
North
Norway North
Sea
2011 91°C
196°F
1.52 g/cm3/12.7 lb/gal cesium formate brine (cut back with water) to OH gravelpack a well in the Snadd North field previously drilled with OBM. Diluted cesium formate brine was chosen because of its lower reactivity with kaolinite shale compared to potassium formate brine. The diluted cesium formate brine was also left in the well as packer fluid.  
46 Delta Petroleum North
Vega
USA 2011 193°C
380°F
1.81 g/cm3/15.1 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used as completion fluid in the high temperature Piceance Basin shale formation.  
45 Conoco Edith
Gray
USA 2011   2.17 g/cm3/18.1 lb/gal cesium formate brine used as well kill fluid in Eagle Ford shale.  
44 Dong Trym Norway North
Sea
2010-2011   2.13 g/cm3/17.8 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to complete two gas condensate production wells.  
43 Oil
Search (PNG)
Moran Papua
New
Guinea
2010 38°C
100°F
First use of cesium formate in Papua New Guinea. Multi-zonal perforation was performed in cesium/potassium formate fluid with two brine densities.  
42 Statoil Alve Norway North
Sea
2010 141°C
286°F
Completed one well with LSOBM using cesium formate brine in the internal phase.  
41 Total Hild Norway North
Sea
2010 139°C
282°F
Completed one well with 2.04 g/cm3/16.7 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine. Formate brine was used in a second well for TP&A.  
40 Conoco Malek USA 2010   1.94 g/cm3/16.2 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used for a well kill in Eagle Ford shale.  
39 Statoil Morvin Norway North
Sea
2010-2011 162°C
324°F
Reduced-solids oil-based completion fluid (RS-OBCF) with cesium formate brine in the internal phase was used in six 8.5" horizontal reservoir sections when installing 5.5" predrilled liners with swell packers previously qualified for cesium formate brine and OBM environments. The reservoir sections had earlier been drilled with OBM. Wells were later displaced from RS-OBCF to cesium formate for installation of the upper completion. OCT 21476.
38 Statoil Vega Norway North
Sea
2009-2011 133°C
271°F
1.63-1.83 g/cm3/13.6-15.3 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to drill and complete several wells. Five wells were drilled and completed with open-hole sand screens. Screens were run in cesium/potassium formate. Three wells were tested, plugged and abandoned. Three reservoirs were perforated in formate brine after drilling with OBM. One well was suspended with cesium/potassium formate brine. The upper completions were installed in cesium/potassium formate brine.  
37 Total Victoria Norway North
Sea
2009 200°C
405°F
1.76 g/cm3/14.7 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to perform a DST in an exploration well. DST story.
36 BP Kessog UK
North
Sea
2009 170°C
305°F
Perforated one well overbalanced in 2.14 g/cm3/17.8 lb/gal cesium formate fluid-loss kill pill. A five-day well test was conducted after perforating before the well was suspended with cesium formate brine to enable a 90-day pressure build up test. SPE 165151.
35 Exxon
Mobil
Jerneh Malaysia 2008   1.65 g/cm3/13.8 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to complete two wells.  
34 AgipKCO Kashagen Kazakh-stan 2008-2010 100°C
212°F
2.03 g/cm3/16.9 lb/gal cesium formate brine used to complete 12 wells. Two wells were later worked over with cesium formate brine. Case history.
33 Shell Champion
West
Brunei 2008 116°C
241°F
1.61 g/cm3/13.4 potassium/cesium formate brine used to complete a well.  
32 Statoil Gullfaks
B
Norway North
Sea
2008-2010   LSOBM with cesium formate as internal phase to complete two wells.  
31 COP Baker Family
Trust
USA 2008   1.98 g/cm3/16.5 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to kill and complete a well.  
30 Total Jura UK
North
Sea
2008 123°C
253°F
2.09 g/cm3/17.4 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to perforate two wells drilled with OBM in the Jura field. The wells were perforated overbalanced in fluid-loss pills with xanthan, fluid-loss polymers and added calcium carbonate. The Jura reservoir has a temperature of 123°C/253°F and pressure of 70.2 MPa/10,182 psi. SPE 165151.
29 NAM
(Shell)
Gasselter-
nijveen
Nether-lands 2008 129°C
264°F
1.90 g/cm3/15.9 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to work over a well.  
28 Exxon
Mobil
Tapis Malaysia 2007 160°C
320°F
1.71 g/cm3/14.2 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine was the first use of cesium formate in Asia.  
27 Statoil   Norway North
Sea
2007-2008   Three wells were perforated in a cesium/potassium formate brine fluid-loss system.  
26 TXM Mako Hungary 2007-2008 235°C
455°F
2.15 g/cm3/17.9 lb/gal cesium formate brine used during a well appraisal in an extreme HPHT well. The well was then suspended with cesium formate for ~8 months. Field history. News article.
25 Statoil Rimfaks Norway North
Sea
2006-2007 138°C
280°F
1.63 g/cm3/13.6 lb/gal low-solids OBM with cesium formate brine as the internal phase was used as screen-running fluid in three wells. The fluid was placed in the reservoir section of the wells when the screens were run. 1.60 g/cm3/13.35 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate fluid used as gravel pack carrier fluid and as upper completion fluid.  
24 Petrobras El Campa-
mento
Argen-tina 2006 138°C
280°F
This was the first use of cesium formate in South America. An 8.5" reservoir section was drilled with potassium formate mud supplied by Halliburton. The fluid was gradually weighted up with cesium formate brine until it reached density of around 1.95 g/cm3/16.3 lb/gal. Logging of the well revealed an almost gauge hole with neglible washouts.  
23 Norsk
Hydro
Oseberg Vestflanke Norway North
Sea
2006   LSOBM with density of 1.64 g/cm3/13.7 lb/gal to complete a well.  
22 Total
E&P
Glenelg UK
North
Sea
2005 195°C
383°F
Overbalanced perforation of an extreme HPHT well (5,600m TVD) with 2.22 g/cm3/18.5 lb/gal cesium formate brine. The Glenelg reservoir has a pressure of 115 MPa/16,700 psi. The single Glenelg well was drilled with oil-based mud and perforated in high-density cesium formate brine without blocking pills. Only 2 m3 of cesium formate brine was lost on perforating, with a further 15.7 m3 of seepage losses later. SPE 165151. SPE 113835.
21 MOL Vetyêm Hungary 2005 160°C
320°F
1.90 g/cm3/15.9 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to frac pac in an onshore HPHT well.  
20 Conoco Phillips Judy UK
North
Sea
2005 160°C
320°F
1.98 g/cm3/16.5 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to perforate a well. The well was perforated overbalanced with the upper completion installed in the clear brine. SPE 165151. SPE 103244.
19 BP Rhum UK
North
Sea
2004-2006 149°C
300°F
2.19 g/cm3/18.3 lb/gal cesium formate brine fluid-loss pills used to perforate two wells using dynamic underbalance. The third well was perforated at balance. All wells cleaned up quickly. One well was suspended in cesium formate brine for 250 days. SPE 165151. OTC 19242.
18 Dong Energy South
Arne
Denmark 2004   Perforated one well overbalanced in a 1.82 g/cm3/15.2 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate fluid-loss pill. This was the first cesium formate application in a carbonate reservoir.  
17 Walter Oil &
Gas
Mobile USA 2004-2005 216°C
420°F
Worked over a deep extreme HPHT well (6,699 m) with barefoot completion using 1.90 g/cm3/15.9 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine. A 1.44 g/cm3/12 lb/gal sodium/potassium formate brine packer fluid was used for 12 months.  
16 Statoil Valemon Norway North
Sea
2013 115°C
239°F
Drilled an extended-reach exploration well into the gas/condensate reservoir from the Kvitebjørn platform. The 705 m (2,313 ft) long reservoir section of this 7,380 m (24,213 ft) long well with an inclination of 69° was successfully drilled with 2.09 g/cm3/17.4 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine drilling fluid. SPE 105733.
15 Statoil Kvitebjørn Norway North
Sea
2004-present 149°C
300°F
From 2004 to 2006, nine HPHT (up to 155°C/311°F, 81 MPa, 11,700 psi) reservoir sections were drilled and seven completed with 2.09 g/cm3/17.4 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine. The wells had inclinations varying between 20 and 45°. Seven of the wells were completed with OH stand-alone sand screens and two with cemented liners. Since 2007, five further reservoir sections have been drilled and completed using lighter cesium/potassium formate drilling fluid. These wells were drilled in MPD mode. The designer fluid from MI Swaco was based on low ECD cesium/potassium formate brine. Stand-alone sandscreens were installed in kill weight cesium/potassium formate drilling fluid. SPE 105733. Case study.
14 Statoil Kristin Norway North
Sea
2003-2008 175°C
347°F
Two HPHT reservoir sections were drilled, cored and logged in 2.09 g/cm3/17.4 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate drilling fluid. The upper completions were installed in cesium/potassium formate brine. Ten upper completions were installed in cesium/potassium formate brine in wells drilled with OBM. Two workovers and one recompletion with cesium/potassium formate brines followed later. SPE 103336.
13 Marathon Braemar UK
North
Sea
2003 136°C
276°F
1.86 g/cm3/15.5 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to re-perforate and complete the reservoir section in the only well in the field. The well had been abandoned for eight years after it was tested and killed with OBM. The re-perforation was conducted at 5.69 MPa/825 psi overbalance without kill pills or any other blocking technologies. However, only 2.3 m3 of brine was lost to the formation from the 302 m3 brine deployed in the well operation. SPE 165151.
12 Statoil Gullfaks & Gullfaks Satellite Norway North
Sea
2003-present 85°C
338°F
Low-solids OBM with cesium formate brine as the internal phase was used as screen-running fluid in several wells. Cesium formate brine has also been used as spike fluid, when drilling in with potassium formate drilling fluid, and as a slug. In 2011, a well with collapsed tubing was worked over – heavy cesium/potassium formate mud was blended with the packer fluid before the old tubing was pulled out. In 2013, Statoil performed its first gravel-pack operation with cesium formate as carrier fluid on a Gullfaks Satellite well. The fluid was a 1.63 g/cm3/13.6 lb/gal potassium/cesium formate brine blend.  
11 Norsk
Hydro/
Statoil
Njord Norway North
Sea
2003-2012 121°C
250°F
Cesium formate brine used as the internal phase in LSOBM in the Njord field. Cesium/potassium formate brine has also been used as slug and kill pills.  
10 Statoil Statfjord Norway North
Sea
2002-2003 85°C
185°F
Drilled three reservoir sections with potassium formate drilling fluid. The wells were gravel packed with potassium formate carrier fluid. During this work, 1.65 g/cm3/13.8 lb/gal cesium formate was used as spike and back-up fluid. Cesium formate brines have also been used as internal phase in low-solids OBM screen-running fluids for three Statfjord Satellite wells.  
9 Norsk
Hydr/
Statoil
Snorre Norway North
Sea
2002-present 85°C
185°F
Used a potassium formate brine fluid-loss pill to complete several oil reservoir sections. The fluid was used for screen-running fluid and/or a perforation pill. 1.65 g/cm3/13.8 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine has also been used to spike up the potassium formate fluid-loss system as required. On the latest wells, RSOBCF with cesium formate brine in the internal phase was used for the same type of applications.  
8 Norsk
Hydro
Tune Norway North
Sea
2002 131°C
267°F
Completed four gas/condensate wells with stand-alone sand screens in 1.65 g/cm3/13.8 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine drilling fluids. Wells were drilled horizontally through the reservoir and completed in open hole with 300-micron single-wire-wrapped screens. Section lengths were 350-900 m/1,150-2,950 ft. The lower completions were run in formate drilling fluid and upper completions in clear cesium/potassium formate brine. The wells were suspended for 6 to 12 months in potassium/cesium formate brine. The wells, and the residual filter-cake lining the open boreholes, cleaned up naturally during the early production phase. No filter-cake removal or well stimulation treatments were required. SPE 130376. SPE 145562. SPE 165151.
7 BP High
Island
USA 2002 177°C
350°F
An HPHT (14,000 psi) well needed recompletion after S13Cr tubing failed due to stress corrosion cracking from exposure to calcium chloride/calcium bromide packer fluid. The well was recompleted with 2.11 g/cm3/17.6 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine. Sodium formate brine was successfully left in the anulus as packer fluid for six years. OTC 24983. Formate Matters.
6 BP Devenick UK
North
Sea
2001 and 2012 154°C
310°F
Two horizontal HPHT wells were drilled with 1.66-1.78 g/cm3/13.1-14.9 lb/gal cesium formate mud. The first job was turbine-motor drilling 385 metres of 6" hole at 88° deviation from a semi-submersible in hard abrasive low-permeability (1 mD) Brae sandstone. Cesium formate brine drilling fluid was used in the first well for drilling, coring (four coring intervals), LWD/wireline logging and the lower completion (well was open for six days). The lower completion comprised of 4 1/2" liners, JMZX packer and a FIV liner-top isolation valve. The upper completion was run in clear 1.65 g/cm3/3.1 lb/gal potassium/cesium formate brine. SPE 15322.
5 Norsk
Hydr/
Statoil
Visund/
Visund
Sor
Norway North
Sea
2001-present 121°C
250°F
1.65 g/cm3/13.8 lb/gal LSOBM used with cesium formate brine as the internal phase to perforate several oil wells. Production rates increased by 600% compared with previous attempts to perforate in calcium bromide brine. In recent years, several wells have been perforated overbalanced in cesium/potassium formate fluid-loss pills. SPE 73709. SPE 83696. SPE 84910. SPE 87126. Visund formate IQPC presentation.
4 Statoil Huldra Norway North
Sea
2000-2002 147°C
297°F
Six HPHT wells were drilled and completed with cesium/potassium formate brine. The wells were up to 5,700 m deep, with reservoir sections of 264 to 344 m. Reservoir sections were drilled at 45 to 57° inclination and completed with stand-alone sand screens. SPE 81726. Case history.
3 Elf
/Total
E&P
Elgin Franklin UK North
Sea
1999-2008 205°C
401°F
2.19 g/cm3/18.3 lb/gal cesium formate brine provided effective well control in over 20 workover and suspension operations in HPHT fields (10 MPa/15,954 psi). Two perforated wells were suspended in cesium formate brine for 15 months and two years respectively. The West Franklin field was the deepest, hottest and highest pressure commercial reservoir in the world when the operations took place. Article case. History. News.
2 Total
Fina
Dunbar UK North
Sea
1999 185°C
365°F
An extended reach (7,353 m/24,118 ft, 78°) HPHT well was perforated in 1.90 g/cm3/15.9 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine. In terms of length and horizontal displacement, the well was a record for Total Marine Plc. Cesium/potassium formate brine was selected for this completion after several unsuccessful attempts with another fluid. Turner / Benton article.
1 Shell Expro Shearwater UK
North
Sea
1999-2008 185°C
365°F
1.80-2.06 g/cm3/15.0-17.2 lb/gal cesium/potassium formate brine used to work over four wells in the HPHT field from 1999 to 2003. One of the wells was perforated underbalanced in the formate brine. In 2008, another workover operation was carried out on one of the Shearwater wells using cesium/potassium formate brine. Turner / Benton article. SPE165151.